SCIENTIST ROPUI NICOLAUS COPERNICUS

                Arsi leh vân lam chanchin zirna lama mi hmingthang leh ropui tak Nicolaus Copernicus-a hi kum 1473 February ni 19 khan Poland rama Torun khuaah a lo piang a. An chhungkua hi dár (copper) hmanga sumdáwng hausa tak an ni a. German mî ni mahse, Torun hi Ploand kuta hlan a nih tâk avângin Poland khua leh tui nihna a nei a. German ṭawng a hmang ber a, mahse Polish ṭawng pawh a thiam tho a ni awm e.

                Kum 10 mî lek a nih laiin a pain a boralsan a, mahse a putea, Bishop chuan a pa tak ang maia enkawlin zirna ṭha thei ang ber a neih theih nán theihpatâwp a chhuahpui a. Kum 1491-ah Cracow University-ah lemziah leh chhiarkawp lam zirin a kal ve ṭan a. Hetih hun lai hian vân lam chanchin zirna chu la ṭan lo mahse, a rilru luah khattu ber a lo nih chhoh tâk avângin, chutiang lam zirna lehkhabu chu a khawn khâwm ṭan a.   www.zolinks.com

                Kum 1494-ah chawlh lain, Italy ramah a zin a. Chutah chuan sakhaw lam dàn zir turin a inziak lût ve a. Chu hmunah chuan arsi lam zir mî, Domenico Maria Novaro nên an intawng hlauh mai a. An ngaihdàn leh hmuh dàn te an han inhrilh tawn chu nuam an ti dûnin, an inkawmngeih ta hlê mai a, chên dun hial te pawh an duh ta a. Domenico Maria Novaro-a hi Copernicaus-a’n hmânlai mi ropui leh fing, Ptolemy-a ngaihdàn leh rin dàn hnial kalh ngam a tawn hmasa ber a ni àwm e.   www.zolinks.com

                Kum 1500-ah Bologna-a dàn lampang a zir chu a zawh fel hnuin, Padua University-ah damdâwi lam a zir chhunzawm leh a, mahse, a puithiam hna aṭanga kum hnih chhúng chawlh a lâk chu a zawh ṭêp tawh avângin a zir zo hman ta lo va. Kum 1503 khan Ferrara University-ah puithiam (cannon) dàn exam tùrin a inbuatsaih leh a. A vawikhatnaah exam chu hneh takin a pal tlang nghâl a ni.   www.zolinks.com

                Ti chuan, Poland-ah hmanhmawh taka kîr lehin puithiam hna chu a putea Bishop hna thawhna hmunah chuan a zawm ve leh a. Kum sarih chhúng chu chuti lai hmunah chuan a khawsa zui ta bawk a. Hê hmunah hian puithiam hna thawk chung leh a putea, tar chak tawh lo tak enkawl chung chuan a awm a. A hun âwl neih apiangin vân lam chanchin zirna lehkhabute chhiarin, a zir chhunzawm reng bawk a. Kum 1510 a lo inher chhuah chuan Frombork Cathedral Chapter-ah a thil zir nâna hun tam zâwk a neih theih inbeiseiin a insuan leh a. Hetah hian a dam chhúng zawngin a khawsa zui ta nghe nghe a ni.

                Kum 1508-ah chuan Copernicaus-a chuan ni hêltu, planet-te inrem khâwm dan lem a siam chhuak ta a. A hmingah chuan ‘heliocentric planetary system’ vuahin, hei hian a entir chu planet-te khian kan chênna khawvel (earth) hi hêl lovin, Ni (sun) khi an hêl zawk a ni, tih a ni. Grik mifing Ptolemy-a leh Aristotle-a te khân planet-te khiang khawvêl hi an hêl kual niin an lo ngai ṭhin a. Mahse anni pahnih ngaihdàn hi a dik famkim thei lovin, inkalhna lai a nei tlat a. Chumi rawn ching fel tùr chuan Copernicus-a chuan a ngaihdàn hi a rawn puang chhuak ta a ni. Chu bâkah, planet-te’n Ni an hêl kualna kawng thui leh thui lo pawh ní aṭanga an awmna hlat záwngah a innghat tlat, tih a chhût chhuak bawk.

                Kum 1540 kum tîr lama Frombork Cathedral Chapter-a a insuan luh hnu chuan ‘heliocentric model’ a tih chu buaipui chhunzawm zêlin chhiarkawp hmanga a dik ngei theih dàn te pawh a rawn duang chhuak ta a. A thawhrim êm avângin kum 1513 khán planet-te awm dàn leh chêt vêl dàn engtik lai pawha a hmuha a zir theihna tùr hmun pawh a lo siam theih ta a ni.

                Kum 1514 báwr vêl khán lehkhabu tê, phêk 40 leka chhah, Commentariolus a ziak a. Latin ṭawng a ni a, a awmzia chu hrilhfiahna tênau tihna a ni. Hê lehkhabu hian ‘heliocentric planetary system’ leh heliocentric model’ te chu vân sáng lam zirna aṭang leh chhiarkawp lam thiamna aṭanga han chhût pawhin a dik a ni tih a rawn tichiang lehzual sauh bawk a ni.

                Copernicus-a lehkhabu ziah, Commentariolus leh De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (vân boruaka thil mûmte kal kual dàn) te chuan inhnialna nasa tak a chawk chhuak ta a. Amah sawisêltute chuan thil mak tak nia an ngaih, parallax-a thlirtu awmna hmun danglam avânga Ní, thla leh Arsite awmna danglam dàn chu a sawifiah zo lo, tiin an sawi a. Tin, khawvêl hian Ní khi eng vânga hêl nge a nih tih pawh hi a hrilhfiah lo a ni an ti bawk a.

                Hêng sawisêlnate bâkah hian a ngaihdàn thar danglam lutuk chuan Roman Catholic kohhran chu a tithinur hlê bawk a. A ngaihdàn a puanchhuahte chu kohhran zirtirna nêna inkalh avâng chuan kal sualna leh zirtirna dik lo nia ngaih a ni bawk. A thih hma lawk, kum 1543-a De revolutionibus orbium coelestium tihchhuah a nih khan sakhaw hruaitu pakhat Martin Luther-a pawhin a pawm loh thu nasa takin a sawi a. Amah zuitu, Lutheran kohhrana an puipa pakhat, Andreas Osiander-a pawhin zâwm vein, “Hê mi â pa hian vân sáng lam chanchin hi a letling záwnga chhuah hi a duh a nih hi,” tiin Copernicus-a chungcháng a sawi ve bawk. Khâng hun laia hriatna a la sân loh avâng khan a ngaihdàn an pawmsak lo pawh hi thil âwm tak chu a ni ve tho mai.   www.zolinks.com

                Copernicus-a thih dànah hian hriat dàn dang deuhte pawh a awm a. Engpawh ni se, hriat dàn tlángláwn berah chuan, kum 1543, May thlaah chhiarkawp thiam Georg Joachim Rheticus-a chu Copernicus-a hnênah a hl6an a, ani chu ‘stroke’ avângin a lo chau hlê a, a lehkhabu pawm vawng vawng chungin a thi ta a ni. Ti chuan, scientist ropui, dik nia a hriat ṭan tlattu chu kum 1543, May ni 24-ah Poland rama Frauenberg-ah chuan mual a lo liam ta a ni.

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